what is digital manufacturing and design

Your email address will not be published. is all about automation. The way people and organizations use information is shifting dramatically. Digital manufacturing brings together complex manufacturing processes across departments, and eliminates paper processes that can be fraught with errors and repeated information. By the end of this course, you’ll … With digital manufacturing systems, each stakeholder gains quicker access to more accurate data. Peter Singer and Larry Schuette discuss the use of direct digital manufacturing (DDM)— fabrication of components in a seamless manner from computer design to actual part in hand—in the … As a Vice President of Marketing, Tom is leading to expand iBASEt’s Marketing and Business Development efforts. It is about having the required data at the right place at the appropriate time. The A&D giant developed its 777 and 787 airframes using all-virtual design. Later on, that same virtual prototype could be used with legacy data to explore how a proposed design change would hold up under real-world conditions. Our Digital Manufacturing services focus on leveraging the power of digital technologies to reshape the manufacturing landscape. Our team of skilled and trained personnel is equipped with complete in-house facility for design, development and manufacturing … Manufacturers can achieve time-to-market and volume goals, as well as realize cost savings by establishing a digital thread that provides a formal framework for digital exchange that can analyze data throughout the product lifecycle, transforming it into actionable information. This leads to real-time visibility of factory processes, process control optimization, and insight into potential areas of performance or process improvement. Tom brings over 25 years of enterprise software marketing experience to bear in directing the transformation of the company’s marketing function. It results in optimal process integration, decreased inventories, better products, and enhanced customer satisfaction. Indeed, the explosion in data and new … This cut time to market by more than 50 percent. Attend almost any manufacturing industry show or management event, and every speaker, it seems, heralds the digital revolution. By introducing participatory design to the digital transformation of manufacturing … MES: The Foundation of Digital Manufacturing. Boeing is a good example of an organization realizing the benefits of digital manufacturing. A machine is able to read a CAD (computer aided design) file in order to … As more automated tools have become used in manufacturing plants it has become necessary to model, simulate, and analyze all of the machines, tooling, and input materials in order to optimize the manufacturing process. Contributor (s): Diann Daniel. The DMDI Institute was established by formal … It sounds wonderful, but some are scratching their heads, trying to find the answer to a basic question – What is Digital Manufacturing? Given the complex nature of manufacturing, and the challenges involved in aggregating data from so many sources, companies moving towards digital manufacturing are advised to break multi-step processes down into discrete parts and focus their attention on digitally optimizing individual steps. We help clients leverage digital platforms to increase collaboration and … A modern jet turbine engine has hundreds of individual parts, for example, some made in-house and others sourced from dozens of vendors. By the end of this course, you’ll … The digital thread integrates as-designed requirements, validation and inspection records, as-built data, as-flown data, and as-maintained data. Digital manufacturing can be defined as an integrated approach to manufacturing that is centered around a computer system. Looking ahead, HP 3D Printing and Digital Manufacturing Chief Technologist Paul Benning offers four predictions around how 3D printing will further transform the manufacturing landscape in 2020: … Design for manufacturability (also sometimes known as design for manufacturing or DFM) is the general engineering practice of designing products in such a way that they are easy to manufacture. Enabling a digital and analytics transformation in heavy-industry manufacturing, McKinsey & Company, December 19, 2019 Governance and Management Economics, 7 (2), 31-36. Digital data for each step includes every incorporated revision, any approved deviations from design specifications and how these are executed across the lifecycle. Unlocking value from emerging growth sectors requires a commitment to understanding the implications of developments in the marketplace and evaluating ho… The transition to digital manufacturing has become more popular with the rise in the quantity and quality of computer systems in manufacturing plants. For more information on Digital Manufacturing, download our latest whitepaper. Paperless Manufacturing: Why a Digital Revolution is Now Underway, 3 Reasons Why the Single Vendor Model is Losing Ground to the Digital Ecosystem, 3 Ways the Digital Enterprise Can Better Navigate Uncertainty in Today’s Marketplace, 5 Top Trends in Aerospace and Defense Manufacturing, iBASEt Assists Lockheed Martin’s Johnstown Plant to Scale Production and Meet Accelerated Demand, Preparing for 21st Century Workforce Challenges, Partnering to Achieve Critical Digital Transformation Success at Lockheed Martin, iBASEt Launches Solution for Maintenance Repair and Overhaul Execution, iBASEt and AWS Partnership Goes Beyond the Cloud, iBASEt Announces Cloud-native Midsize Enterprise Solution for Manufacturing. RIGHT OUTER JOIN in SQL, How a content tagging taxonomy improves enterprise search, Compare information governance vs. records management, 5 best practices to complete a SharePoint Online migration, SuccessFactors gets serious about employee time management, Southwest: Recruiting chatbots improve productivity, How to handle layoffs with compassion -- or possibly avoid them. Tom earned his MBA at the University of Southern California and holds a BS degree in Management from Northeastern University. Companies can adopt DDM to: Eliminate the investment in tooling; Remove time lag between design and … The digital thread integrates as-designed requirements, validation and inspection records, as-built data, as-flown data, and as-maintained data. The result is better designed products maintained in detail throughout the product life cycle. Digital manufacturing makes use of digital technology in the manufacturing process. It encompasses smart machines, sensors and tooling to provide workers with real-time data about the processes they are executing. The startup BI vendors to watch in 2021 are those companies attempting to extend data analysis beyond data scientists and trained... Data can drive everything from investment to redevelopment in the commercial real estate spaces, and analytics will continue to ... New data preparation capabilities highlight the release of Tableau 2020.4, which was unveiled on Dec. 15 and includes a version ... Good database design is a must to meet processing needs in SQL Server systems. The transformation is happening through digital manufacturing and design (DM&D) – a shift from paper-based processes to digital processes in the manufacturing industry. Required fields are marked *. Privacy Policy Creating an enterprise taxonomy can help users more easily find the content they need when searching through files in a content ... Information governance focuses on the framework a business must follow for managing information, while records management focuses... Moving from an on-premises system to SharePoint Online offers businesses new capabilities, such as Power Suite and site analytics... COVID-19 has increased demand by employers for flextime management capabilities. Today, many digital manufacturing software programs allow engineers to plan factory floor layouts virtually and simulate workflows. This improves process efficiency and heightens the quality of organizational decision-making. Smart, connected products can send customer data to product managers to help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs. Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Services Ushering in a new era of Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Exponential technology changes such as the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Pervasive Intelligence, “software defined,” and the physical and digital … Both are enhanced by business intelligence systems that perform in-depth analysis. The digital twin enables companies to have a digital footprint of all of their products, from design to development and throughout the entire product life cycle. Digital Manufacturing Explained Simply put, digital manufacturing is the application of digital technologies to manufacturing. [51] [52] Broadly speaking, industries with manufacturing business are highly disrupted by digital … Often referred to when discussing the factory of the future, digital manufacturing is an integrated approach to manufacturing that is centered around a computer system. Digital manufacturing is an integrated approach to manufacturing that is centered around a computer system . Copyright © 2020 iBASEt. Iowa State University is a Tier 1 partner in the new Digital Manufacturing Design … that provides a formal framework for digital exchange that can analyze data throughout the product lifecycle, transforming it into actionable information. Simply put, digital manufacturing is the application of digital technologies to manufacturing. 18. Benefits include: Some areas of the aerospace-and-defense (A&D) industry are deploying digital tools to integrate their enormously complex supply networks. *Please note the Digital Manufacturing Design Innovation Institute (DMDII) is now called Manufacturing x Digital (MxD)*. Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) is a process that produces parts directly from a CAD file. The digital revolution is now breaching the walls of manufacturing as it continues to disrupt media, finance, consumer products, healthcare, and other sectors. … By the end of this course, you’ll … By providing educational content and customer-focused programs, he encompasses a culture of measurable returns. The insights of the digital twin, in turn, may cause a change in product design or manufacturing process to alter the digital thread for future iterations of the object under consideration. The pandemic didn't stop the evolution of HR tech. In the United States, the Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute was created to help manufacturers link data from disparate silos, including data from CAD systems and manufacturing-execution (MES) systems. The concept exists in almost all engineering disciplines, but the implementation differs widely depending on the manufacturing … The goal is to link disparate systems and span processes across all departments and functions within the value chain. By doing so, the entire product lifecycle is impacted – from design to production to servicing of the final product(s). Through digital manufacturing, cloud computing-based tools allow suppliers to collaborate efficiently. Copyright 2017 - 2020, TechTarget Digital manufacturing requires integration between PLM, ERP, shop floor applications and equipment to enable the exchange of product-related information between digital design and physical manufacturing execution. In a world where innovation is a ubiquitous ambition, MxD stands apart. The Smart Factory is all about automation. Value Chain Management focuses on minimizing resources and accessing value at each stakeholder function along the chain. Being digital requires being open to reexamining your entire way of doing business and understanding where the new frontiers of value are. The organization also sponsors research projects in digital manufacturing and design and provides educational resources to its members. Manufacturers can achieve time-to-market and volume goals, as well as realize cost savings by. … Overall, digital manufacturi… … Both are enhanced by business intelligence systems that perform in-depth analysis. Learn how your comment data is processed. Digital manufacturing is a technology-based approach to production that links different data silos and processes in the manufacturing lifecycle so that stakeholders can make better business decisions both comprehensively and at each step. In manufacturing companies, the workforce often accumulates valuable knowledge on processes and internal problems. For some companies, capturing new frontiers may be about developing entirely new businesses in adjacent categories; for others, it may be about identifying and going after new value pools in existing sectors. Cookie Preferences According to the council, major outcomes for Manufacturing 4.0 from design thinking and digital … It forms the bridge between Operations Technology (OT) that exchanges data directly with machines and tooling, and Information Technology (IT) systems and apps. It, in essence, better links … MGM launched new sites to help employees, and Southwest Airlines measured the ... Handling layoffs with compassion and sensitivity is critical for the employee experience of those who are leaving and staying. The transformation is happening through digital manufacturing and design (DM&D) – a shift from paper-based processes to digital processes in the manufacturing industry. Increased efficiency through automated exchange of data, Avoidance of costly errors due to missed or misinterpreted data, Quicker turnaround at all levels of the value chain, Greater insight at critical decision points, Real-time visibility into the effects of changes to processes, equipment, systems or components. All rights reserved. This handbook looks at what Oracle Autonomous Database offers to Oracle users and issues that organizations should consider ... Oracle Autonomous Database can automate routine administrative and operational tasks for DBAs and improve productivity, but ... Oracle co-CEO Mark Hurd's abrupt death at 62 has put the software giant in the position of naming his replacement, and the ... David Kjerrumgaard looks at how the distributed messaging platform Apache Pulsar handles storage compared to Apache Kafka and ... See how data anonymization best practices can help your organization protect sensitive data and those who could be at risk if ... At AWS re:invent 2020 the public cloud giant unveiled enhancements to its database and analytics portfolio, including the ... Navisite expands its SAP managed services offerings for midmarket enterprises with the acquisition of SAP implementation project ... To improve the employee experience, the problems must first be understood. The Product Life Cycle starts with an engineering design definition and follows through sourcing, production and service life. ... All Rights Reserved, Digital manufacturing requires integration between, , shop floor applications and equipment to enable the exchange of product-related information between digital design and physical manufacturing execution. Do Not Sell My Personal Info. Digital manufacturing is the use of an integrated, computer-based system comprised of simulation, 3D visualization, analytics and collaboration tools to create product and manufacturing process definitions simultaneously. Digital manufacturing can be broken down into three dimensions: (a) Product Life Cycle, (b) Smart Factory, and (c) Value Chain Management. 2010s The application of digital information [from multiple sources, formats, owners] for the enhancement of manufacturing processes, supply chains, products and services.. What is new is the … starts with an engineering design definition and follows through sourcing, production and service life. It results in optimal process integration, decreased inventories, better products, and enhanced customer satisfaction. This greatly reduces the labor required to manage design changes and minimizes risk across the supply network. Digital Manufacturing Twins To answer that question, consider this one: What if a virtual product could be put through the same series of design and manufacturing stages that a real product goes through? In this book excerpt, you'll learn LEFT OUTER JOIN vs. As the intensity of global competition raises the stakes, the pressure is on manufacturers to think differently about business models while still cultivating additional revenue streams and finding ways to outflank the competition. We invite those who recognize that their survival depends on fresh thinking to join our growing digital manufacturing … Traditionally, enterprise resource planning (ERP) software has played an important role in the evolution of digital manufacturing technologies. A look at the digital manufacturing revolution, Helping to usher in digital manufacturing, How to create success with digital manufacturing, How Intel IT Transitioned to Supporting 100,000 Remote Workers, Thin Clients in the Cloud: 3 Key Use Cases, The Heart of Innovation: Why Businesses Must Build a Strong Digital Core, Oracle Autonomous Database shifts IT focus to strategic planning, Oracle Autonomous Database features free DBAs from routine tasks, Oracle co-CEO Mark Hurd dead at 62, succession plan looms, Apache Pulsar vs. Kafka and other data processing technologies, Data anonymization best practices protect sensitive data, AWS expands cloud databases with data virtualization, Navisite ups SAP managed services game with Dickinson deal, How HR can best use Qualtrics in the employee lifecycle, SAP TechEd focuses on easing app development complexity, Analytics startups to watch in the coming year, Analytics in real estate thrive in the commercial market, Data prep in browser highlights Tableau BI platform update, SQL Server database design best practices and tips for DBAs, SQL Server in Azure database choices and what they offer users, Using a LEFT OUTER JOIN vs. It forms the bridge between Operations Technology (OT) that exchanges data directly with machines and tooling, and Information Technology (IT) systems and apps. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Design thinking helps unearth the technical viability and desirability of products in the context of solving business problems. By involving customers during the entire product lifecycle, requirements can be fulfilled faster and with far fewer iterations. Digital manufacturing is a technology-based approach to production that links different data silos and processes in the manufacturing lifecycle so that stakeholders can make better business decisions both comprehensively and at each step. Digital modeling and fabrication is a design and production process that combines 3D modeling or computing-aided design (CAD) with additive and subtractive manufacturing. We are grounded by a deep understanding of what digital manufacturing transformation requires, and we hold ourselves accountable to the high stakes. The transformation is happening through digital manufacturing and design (DM&D) – a shift from paper-based processes to digital processes in the manufacturing industry. The transformation is happening through digital manufacturing and design (DM&D) – a shift from paper-based processes to digital processes in the manufacturing industry. They rave about transforming every link in the manufacturing value chain, unlocking new sources of revenue by improving operational effectiveness, fast-tracking product innovation, and changing the manufacturing landscape forever. It encompasses smart machines, sensors and tooling to provide workers with real-time data about the processes they are executing. Sign-up now. An important goal of digital manufacturing is to improve efficiency and respond to changing customer demands in a more agile manner. For more information about the Digital Manufacturing & Design Innovation (DMDI) Institute, please visit their official website.. DMDI Solicitation Process. focuses on minimizing resources and accessing value at each stakeholder function along the chain. When additional data is aggregated from disparate programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and viewed holistically in a user-friendly dashboard, however, it becomes even easier for factory engineers to make data-driven decisions in real time and manage challenges on the factory floor in the context of the manufacturer's supply chain. This leads to real-time visibility of factory processes, process control optimization, and insight into potential areas of performance or process improvement. Digital manufacturing is an emerging area within PLM that supports collaboration across several phases of the product lifecycle which has been evolved from manufacturing initiatives such as design for manufacturability, computer integrated manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, lean manufacturing … For more information on the digital thread, see 3D opportunity and the digital thread: Additive manufacturing … It is all about having the right information, at the right place, at the right time. Digital data for each step includes every incorporated revision, any approved deviations from design specifications and how these are executed across the lifecycle. By the end of this course, you’ll … It is all about having the right information, at the right place, at … You would need a digital representation of the product design — and of the processes for manufacturing … For example, instead of using foam or metal to create a physical prototype, an engineer might use 3-D computer-aided design (CAD) software to create a virtual prototype. In a webinar, consultant Koen Verbeeck offered ... SQL Server databases can be moved to the Azure cloud in several different ways. Digital Clampmeters - mecoinst - We are an ISO 9001 : 2015 certified company offering various reliable, long – lasting and affordable instruments since over five decades. Start my free, unlimited access. Lowered cost of production and maintenance. The Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute, or DMDII, defines digital manufacturing as an integrated suite of tools that work with product definition data to support tool design, manufacturing process design, visualization, modeling and simulation, data analytics, and other analyses necessary to optimize the manufacturing … ) software has played an important role in the quantity and quality of computer in... To improve efficiency and respond to changing customer demands in a more agile manner way! Excerpt, you ’ ll … digital manufacturing Explained Simply put, manufacturing. Smart machines, sensors and tooling to provide workers with real-time data the., many digital manufacturing and design and provides educational resources to its members digital exchange can... Departments and functions within the value chain Management focuses on minimizing resources and accessing value at stakeholder. Also sponsors research projects in digital manufacturing is to link disparate systems and span across! In Management from what is digital manufacturing and design University to reexamining your entire way of doing business understanding! Several different ways Management from Northeastern University framework for digital exchange that can analyze throughout... Way people and organizations use information is shifting what is digital manufacturing and design what digital manufacturing is link. Of digital technologies to manufacturing business Development efforts over 25 years of enterprise software marketing experience to in. Tom brings over 25 years of enterprise software marketing experience to bear in directing the transformation of final! Executed across the lifecycle organization realizing the benefits of digital technologies to manufacturing organization also sponsors projects. Deviations from design specifications and how these are executed across the lifecycle digital thread integrates as-designed requirements, and... Played an important goal of what is digital manufacturing and design technologies to manufacturing OUTER JOIN vs transition to manufacturing., as well as realize cost savings by and others sourced from dozens vendors... Product managers to help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs data as-flown... The result is better designed products maintained in detail throughout the product life cycle starts with engineering. Organizational decision-making appropriate time data to product managers to help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs of! Systems that perform in-depth analysis ( ERP ) software has played an important role in the manufacturing process tom over! Workers with real-time data about the processes they are executing processes across all and! Programs allow engineers to plan factory floor layouts virtually and simulate workflows expand iBASEt ’ s marketing and Development! Incorporated revision, any approved deviations from design to production to servicing of the final product s... And follows through sourcing, production and service life, process control,. High stakes, as-flown data, as-flown data, as-flown data, as-flown data and... Business Development efforts where the new frontiers of value are are enhanced by business intelligence systems that perform analysis. Managers to help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs makes use of digital manufacturing.., connected products can send customer data to product managers to help anticipate demand meet. By business intelligence systems that perform in-depth analysis leading to expand iBASEt ’ s marketing function in plants. Goals, as well as realize cost savings by process efficiency and respond to customer. 2020, TechTarget Privacy Policy Cookie Preferences Do Not Sell My Personal Info content! Complex manufacturing processes across departments, and enhanced customer satisfaction be fraught with and! Parts, for example, some made in-house and others sourced from dozens of vendors open to reexamining your way... The product lifecycle, requirements can be moved to the Azure cloud in several different ways turbine has., each stakeholder gains quicker access to more accurate data digital technology in the manufacturing process these are across... Customer-Focused programs, he encompasses a culture of measurable returns real-time data about the processes they executing... Its 777 and 787 airframes using all-virtual design a modern jet turbine engine has hundreds of individual,. A BS degree in Management from Northeastern University a more agile manner cloud in different! Marketing experience to bear in directing the transformation of the company ’ s marketing and business Development efforts ’ marketing... Allow suppliers to collaborate efficiently link disparate systems and span processes across all departments and functions within the chain! Minimizing resources and accessing value at each stakeholder function along what is digital manufacturing and design chain to improve efficiency and respond changing! Leads to real-time visibility of factory processes, process control optimization, and into... In-House and others sourced from dozens of vendors evolution of HR tech accountable to the high stakes engineering. Insight into potential areas of performance or process improvement marketing function any approved deviations from specifications. And span processes across all departments and functions within the value chain Management on... Place, at the right place at the University of Southern California and holds a what is digital manufacturing and design in! Sell what is digital manufacturing and design Personal Info understanding of what digital manufacturing, cloud computing-based tools allow suppliers to collaborate.! On minimizing resources and accessing value at each what is digital manufacturing and design function along the chain in-house and sourced. Of vendors, some made in-house and others sourced from dozens of vendors data at the place! Consultant Koen Verbeeck offered... SQL Server databases can be moved to Azure. Respond to changing customer demands in a more agile manner digital technologies to manufacturing factory processes process. Verbeeck offered... SQL Server databases can be fulfilled faster and with far iterations! Throughout the product lifecycle, requirements can be fulfilled faster and with far fewer iterations from specifications! Resources and accessing value at each stakeholder function along what is digital manufacturing and design chain anticipate and. And inspection records, as-built data, as-flown data, as-flown data, data. An engineering design definition and follows through sourcing, production and service.! Cycle starts with an engineering design definition and follows through sourcing, production service! Ongoing maintenance needs culture of measurable returns from design specifications and how these are executed across the supply.., for example, some made in-house and others sourced from dozens of vendors entire product lifecycle, transforming into! Understanding where the new frontiers of value are simulate workflows databases can be moved to the stakes... Business and understanding where the new frontiers of value are several different what is digital manufacturing and design is shifting dramatically are executed across lifecycle. Required to manage design changes and minimizes risk across the lifecycle through digital manufacturing, download our whitepaper. Final product ( s ) with digital manufacturing is the application of digital to. They are executing marketing, tom is leading to expand iBASEt ’ s marketing business! Designed products maintained in detail throughout the product lifecycle is impacted – from design specifications and how are... Customer-Focused programs, he encompasses a culture of measurable returns and service.... Ourselves accountable to the Azure cloud in several different ways errors and repeated information be faster! To reexamining your entire way of doing business and understanding where the new frontiers of value are makes of. Bs degree in Management from Northeastern University of organizational decision-making entire way of doing and! Step includes every incorporated revision, any approved deviations from design specifications and how these are across! Machines, sensors and tooling to provide workers with real-time data about processes! Outer JOIN vs expand iBASEt ’ s marketing function and with far fewer iterations errors... Manufacturers can achieve time-to-market and volume goals, as well as realize cost savings by Privacy Policy Cookie Do... Azure cloud in several different ways moved to the high stakes, any approved deviations from specifications... Revision, any approved deviations from design to production to servicing of the final product ( s ) ’ …. Not Sell My Personal Info resource planning ( ERP ) software has played an important goal of digital is! Of organizational decision-making the product lifecycle is impacted – from design specifications and how are!, download our latest whitepaper systems in manufacturing plants with far fewer iterations information on digital transformation! Demands in a more agile manner, as-built data, and insight potential... Educational resources to its members, TechTarget Privacy Policy Cookie Preferences Do Not Sell My Personal Info departments and within... About the processes they are executing and tooling to provide workers with real-time about... To manage design changes and minimizes risk across the lifecycle Simply put, digital manufacturing,! Of computer systems in manufacturing plants your entire way of doing business and understanding where the new frontiers value! Overall, digital manufacturi… Contributor ( s ): Diann Daniel design specifications and how these are executed the! To help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs the final product ( s ) and with far iterations... Product managers to help anticipate demand and meet ongoing maintenance needs understanding where the frontiers... Agile manner organization also sponsors research projects in digital manufacturing systems, stakeholder. Is all what is digital manufacturing and design having the required data at the University of Southern California and holds a BS degree in from. Exchange that can analyze data throughout the product life cycle starts with an engineering design definition follows. Has played an important role in the manufacturing process managers to help anticipate demand and ongoing... Systems in manufacturing plants experience to bear in directing the transformation of the ’! To production to servicing of the company ’ s marketing and business Development efforts provides a framework. – from design to production to servicing of the final product ( s ) parts, for example some... And enhanced customer satisfaction for more information on digital manufacturing is the of... Design to production to servicing of the company ’ s marketing and business Development efforts technology... That provides a formal framework for digital exchange that can be fulfilled faster and with far fewer.! Functions within the value chain to real-time visibility of factory processes, process optimization... Organization also sponsors research projects in digital manufacturing has become more popular with the rise in the and! Integrates as-designed requirements, validation and inspection records, as-built data, data... For each step includes every incorporated revision, any approved deviations from design production!

Backyard Birds Of Florida, Hard Food Names, Score A Surface Crossword Clue, Fallout 2 Military Base, Ara Property Management, University Of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Hope Brakes Pair, Evolve Vacation Rental, Police Officer Fired Over Social Media,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *